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Handbook on Fire Safety & Disaster Preparedness - English

Handbook on Fire Safety & Disaster Preparedness - Konkani

Handbook on Fire Safety & Disaster Preparedness - Marathi

HOW TO USE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

Pull the pin or safety clip. This will allow you to discharge the extinguisher.

Aim at the base of the fire. If you aim at the flames (which is frequently the temptation), the extinguishing agent will fly right through and do no good. You need to hit the fuel.

Squeeze/open the top handle or lever. This depresses a button that releases the pressurized extinguishing agent in the extinguisher.

Sweep from side to side until the fire is completely out. Start using the extinguisher from a safe distance away, then move forward. Once the fire is out, keep an eye on the area in case it re-ignites.

 

TEN STANDARD FIRE ORDERS:

  1. Fight Fire aggressively but provide for Fire Safety.

  2. Initiate all action based on current and unexpected fire behavior.

  3. Recognize current weather conditions and obtain forecasts.

  4. Ensure that instructions are given and understood correctly.

  5. Obtain current information on fire status.

  6. Remain in communication with crew members, your supervisor.

  7. Determine Safety Zones and escapes routes.

  8. Establish lookouts in potentially hazardous situations.

  9. Retain control at all times.

  10. Stay alert, keep calm, think clearly and act decisively.

 

FIRE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:

FIRE PRECAUTIONS IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS:

The threat of fire in High Rise Buildings is constant and if adequate precautionary measures are not taken, the consequences can be grave. Therefore, observe the following basic precautions:

Do’s

  1. Good House Keeping must be ensured.

  2. Always use ashtrays while smoking and deposit smoked butts in them after extinguishing.

  3. All receptacles for waste should be emptied at regular intervals.

  4. Faulty electrical appliances should be repaired/ replaced immediately. 

  5. Switches and fuses should conform to correct rating of circuit.

  6. Welding/ cutting jobs should be carried out under strict supervision.

  7. Keep smoke/ Fire Check doors closed

  8. Keep means of Escape clear of obstructions.

  9. Fire rescue drills should be carried out at regular intervals.

  10. Impart elementary fire fighting training to occupants.

  11. Emergency organization must be set up.

DONT’s

  1. Don’t dispose off lighted cigarette ends carelessly.

  2. Don’t plug too many electrical appliances in one socket.

  3. Don’t paint fire detector/ Sprinkler heads.

 

FIRE SAFETY PRECAUTIONS AGAINST ELECTRICITY:

About 60% fires are of electric origin on account of electric short circuit, overheating, overloading, use of non-standard appliances, illegal tapping of electrical wires, improper electrical wiring, carelessness and ignorance etc. It can lead to serious fire and fatal accidents, if proper instructions are not followed. Such incidents may be minimized to a great extent if adequate fire precautions are observed. Electrical fires spread rapidly especially in buildings and cause loss of life and property. It is, therefore, necessary to act fast. Raise an alarm for help. Switch off power supply to de-energize the equipment. Use dry sand, Co2 , dry powder of Halon extinguishers.

Do’s

  1. Use I.S.I. Certified appliances.

  2. Use good quality fuses of correct rating, miniature circuit breakers and earth leakage circuit breakers.

  3. Use one socket for one appliance.

  4. Switch off the electric supply of the fire affected areas.

  5. Fuses and Switches should be mounted on metallic cubicles for greater safety against fire.

  6. Replace broken plugs and switches.

  7. Keep the electrical wires away from hot and wet surfaces.

  8. Switch off appliance after use and remove the plug from the socket.

  9. Switch off the ‘Main’ switch when leaving home for a long duration.

Don’ts

  1. Don't use substandard fixtures, appliances.

  2. Never have temporary or naked joints on wiring.

  3. Don’t lay wires under carpets, mats or doorways. They get crushed, resulting in short circuiting.

  4. Don’t allow appliance cords to dangle.

  5. Don't place bare wire end in a socket.

GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING FIRE SAFETY DRILL AND EVACUATION PROCEDURES FOR HIGH RISE BUILDINGS:

In case of fire in a high-rise buildings safe evacuation of its occupants may present serious problems unless a plan for orderly and systematic evacuation is prepared in advance and all occupants are well drilled in the operation of such plan. The Fire Exit Drills are absolutely necessary in all public Institutions Hotels, Boarding Houses, Hospitals, Factories and especially in Schools and Colleges. Properly conducted they not only secure the orderly and rapid evacuation of the building but teach self-control as well.

Fire Drills shall be conducted, in accordance with the fire safety plan, at least once every three months for existing buildings during the first two years. Thereafter fire drills shall be conducted once every six months. For School buildings fire drills should be held once per term, preferably at the commencement of each term or school year.

All occupants of the building shall participate in the fire drill. However, occupants of the building, other than building service employees are not required to leave the floor or use the exits during the drill.

A written record of such drills shall be kept on the premises for three years period and shall be readily available for fire brigade inspection.

FIREWORKS SAFETY:

Traditionally Fireworks form an integral part of celebrating Diwali, marriage ceremony and other such happy occasion. But in many cases, happy occasions become gloomy and laughter turns to tears due to indiscriminate use of fireworks without taking safety precautions. Some carefulness, some safety cautiousness could help in saving such odd events to make the celebration more bright and purposeful. Some safety precautions while using Fireworks/Crackers shall be as under:-

Do’s

  1. Carefully read the fire safety instructions and precautions written On fireworks.

  2. Always keep a bucket of water and sand ready while igniting Fireworks.

  3. Always immerse the used/exhausted fireworks like sparklers, Rockets into a bucket of water or dry loose sand.

  4. Close the windows and openings of your house properly to prevent ingress of lighted flying crackers.

  5. Elder’s supervision is a must when children play with firecrackers.

  6. It is safe to play firecrackers in open grounds and open places.

  7. Rockets, Flowerpots and other flying crackers should not be displayed near thatched house and hay stacks.

  8. Wear tight cotton clothes while playing firecrackers.

  9. If you receive burn injuries accidentally, pour cold water until pain subsides and consult a doctor.

Don’ts

  1. Never allow children to light fireworks in absence of elders.

  2. Don’t relight fireworks that fail to ignite.

  3. Don’t light fireworks very close to the buildings.

  4. Don’t leave lighted oil lamps, agarbattis or candles on the floor or near fireworks.

  5. Don’t allow fireworks display inside the house.

  6. Don’t hold flowerpots, hand bombs, in hand during display.

  7. Don't allow children near dangerous and high sounding Firecrackers.

  8. Don't display fireworks near crackers shop.

  9. Don't throw lighted fire crackers indiscriminately into open.


FIRE SAFETY IN HOTELS

Fire safety in hotels can be achieved by considering the following aspects.

MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY which includes issue of written statement of its Policy regarding fire safety to its employees, training staff in handling & operation of First aid fire fighting equipments, assigning responsibilities to its specific persons, planning evacuation, drills & practice.
CONTAINMENT OF SMOKE this can be achieved by containment of smoke/ fire by Fire resistant construction & compartment.
PROVISION OF SAFETY ESCAPE ROUTES By providing continuous & unobstructed way to exit travel from any point in the hotel to public way.
EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY & LIGHTING Stand by power supply arrangements shall be made to illuminate corridors, staircases, basement, exit signage, operating of fire lifts, fire pump, etc.
FIRE SAFETY/ FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS Adequate number of fire detection & suppression equipments shall be provided in the buildings irrespective of its height Viz: Internal Hydrant system, Automatic detection cum Alarm system, portable fire extinguisher etc.


IMPORTANCE OF FIRE SAFETY TRAINING IN INDUSTRIES

Fire safety starts with Fire Prevention and for that it is important to have certain basic knowledge of combustion, Fire hazard properties & potentially dangerous processes in area of work. An employee who is present on the spot is the most important Fire Fighter who can prevent & extinguish the fire in the earliest stage there by minimizing the loss of life and property. But to do so he must have the knowledge and training.

IMPORTANT FACTORS OF FIRE FIGHTING TRAINING.

  • Build up the right attitudes amongst the employees.

  • Basic and clear information on the phenomenon of Fire combustion which is useful in tackling Fire surely and safely.

  • Information on Fire risks in respective industry/work area.

  • Information on th correct Fire Fighting Techniques.

  • Information of First Aid and Rescue Techniques.

  • Knowledge of the Emergency Plan of the industry the purpose of which should be known and simulated. Fire Drill should also be planned during training.

  • Analysis of case histories of relevant Fire accidents which helps in correlating the importance of fire safety.

  • The only way to keep the increasing risk of fire under control is to have knowledgeable & safe workers with the right attitude.

FIRE SAFETY FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

WHAT TO DO IN CASE OF FIRE:

If possible, close the door of the room, where the fire is close all the doors behind you as you leave. This will help delay the spread of fire and smoke.
Before opening a closed door use the back of your hand to touch it. Don't open, if you feel hot - the fire will be on the other side.
Get everyone out, as quickly as possible. Don't try to pick up valuables. Make your way out, as safely as you can and try not to panic. It will help you to plan your escape route now rather than waiting until the fire reaches you.
Contact the fire brigade. Clearly state the address of the fire.
Never go back into the house until a fire officer has told you it is safe to do so.

IF YOU ARE CUT OFF BY FIRE:

Try to remain calm.
If you are unable to use the door because of flames or smoke, close the door and use towel or bed sheet to block any gaps. This will help stop smoke spreading into the room.
Try to make your way to the window. If the room becomes smoky, crawl along the floor where its easier to breathe
Open the window and try to attract the attention of others who can alert the fire brigade. Wait for the fire Brigade to arrive.
The fire brigade should arrive in a matter of minutes. If you are in immediate danger and your room is not too high from the ground below to break your fall from the window. If you can, get out feet first and lower yourself to the full length of your arms before dropping.

HOW TO PREVENT FIRES:

Unplug all electrical appliances not designed to stay on.
Make sure no cigarettes are still burning.
Before emptying ashtrays make sure that the contents are cold.
Put a guard around open fires.
Switch off portable room heaters.
Close the doors of un occupied rooms.

TRAPPED IN A LIFT:

When a lift breaks down with people trapped inside, the greatest danger is from panic.

Do’s

  1. Stay calm and try to reassure anyone who shows sign of panic.

  2. Instill confidence and explain that you are not in danger, that help can be summoned in several ways, and that there is no possibility of the lift falling out of control down the shaft.

  3. Use the alarm button or the telephone inside the lift to call for help.

  4. If there is no alarm system, bang on the door and shout for help.

  5. Once you contact someone outside, explain what has happened and ask him to get expert help at once.

  6. Tell your contact to dial 101 (Fire Brigade).

  7. Stay calm and wait, you may get hungry, thirsty and worried, but you will survive.


Don’ts

  1. Never try to escape from the lift without help from an expert outside.

  2. Do not try to force the inner lift doors open.

  3. Do not be tempted to climb out of any hatch there may be in the lift’s ceiling.


INSTRUCTIONS FOR FIRE SAFETY IN RESPECT OF TEMPORARY STRUCTURES/ PANDALS:

  1. The height of the ceiling of the pandal should not be less than 3 meters.

  2. No synthetic materials or synthetic ropes should be used in such structures.

  3. Margins of at least 3 meters should be kept on all sides-away from any pre-existing walls or buildings, line.

  4. No structure should be erected underneath any live electrical line.

  5. Structure should be erected reasonably away from railway lines, electric sub-stations, furnaces or other hazardous places

  6. Exits on all sides of pandals shall be kept sufficiently wide (minimum 1.5 meters).

  7. First-aid fire extinguishers or water buckets must be installed at strategic points inside and outside of the pandal.

  8. There should be provision of an emergency standby light.

  9. No combustible material like wood shavings, straw, flammable and explosive chemicals and similar materials should be permitted to stored in the vicinity or inside the pandal.

  10. No fireworks display with open flames of any kind should be permitted close to the temporary structure/ pandal.

  11. Kitchen must be segregated by providing separation walls of non-combustible materials (G.I. Sheets) from the remaining area of the temporary structure.


SURVIVAL GUIDE IN CASE OF FIRE:

WHAT IS FIRE:
Fire is a chemical reaction in which heat, light and smoke evolve. To generate fire, heat, fuel and oxygen is essentially required in balance ratio. Shortage of any one restrict occurrence of fire.

FIRE GROWS FAST:
It is now established that a small flame can get completely out of control in seconds and turn into a major fire. It can fill up a home with black thick smoke very quickly. In minutes a home can be engulfed in flames. There is very short time to “ESCAPE”.

“Each second counts in escape”

Fire is ‘HOT’ & ‘DARK’:
Fire generates heat that can kill. Temperature in a room varies from 100 degree at floor level to 600 degree at eye level. Inhaling super hot air will scorch your lungs. Heat can melt clothes to your skin. In just five minutes a room can get so hot that everything in it ignites at once. Fire brings darkness even if it starts bright. It produces black thick smoke which reduces visibility.

“Escape from heat!”

“Escape from darkness!”

FIRE IS DEADLY:
Fire produces heat, smoke and toxic gases. Smoke and toxic gases travel faster than the heat hence they kill more people than flames do. Breathing even small amount of smoke and toxic gases can make you drowsy, disoriented. The odorless, colorless fumes can lull you into a deep sleep before the flames reach your door.

FIRES DO HAPPEN:
Fire occurs frequently in Home, Industries, office etc. PREVENT FIRES. You should make sure that you and others know
1. What to do if Fire does break out?
2. What would you do if you or any member discovers a Fire?
3. How would you and others escape